Introduced in January 1984, Apple's Macintosh computer changed
everything - but the world of personal computing was already a decade
old, and Apple was already successful with its Apple II line. These
articles look at Apple before the advent of the Mac, as well as the
broader world of personal computing.
the rise of the Apple II, Tom Hormby. "VisiCalc was first released
for the Apple II, which quickly became an invaluable tool for
businesspeople - at least until IBM moved into the 'personal computing'
market in 1981."
The Ill-Fated Apple III, Jason
Walsh, Apple Before the Mac, 2005.01.05. "...not only was the Apple III
mind crunchingly expensive, it was made with none of the passion of the
Apple II or Macintosh."
Apple III Chaos:
Apple's First Failure, Joshua Coventry, Cortland, 2006.09.01. Apple
had known nothing but success with its Apple II product line, but when
it tried to enter the business world with the Apple III, the learned
the cost of failure.
A history of Apple's
Lisa, 1979-1986, Tom Hormby, Orchard, 2005.10.05. Originally
envisioned as a business computer to replace the Apple II, the Lisa
brought the mouse and GUI to the computer market - only to be felled by
the less costly Macintosh.
The innovative Lisa, Dan Knight,
Online Tech Journal, 2001.05.31. Apple's Lisa and how it paved the way
for the Macintosh.
The Lisa legacy, Dan Knight,
Mac Musings, 2003.01.20. We should always remember how Apple's
innovation paved the way for all future computers.
Lisa's DNA is all over modern
computing, Ray Arachelian, Apple Seeds, 2007.06.06. Those who label
Apple's Lisa a failure are ignoring the computer's legacy that shows up
in every personal computer sold today.
The IBM PC
Thanks for the IBM PC, Dad, L. Victor
Marks, My First Mac, 2001.08.30. Dad, thanks for bringing home that
first IBM PC way back in 1981.
What a legacy: The
origin of the IBM PC, Tom Hormby, Orchard, 2006.08.11. IBM
introduced its PC on August 12, 1981, shaking up the entire personal
computer industry. Today even Apple makes its computers IBM